Car Insurance – In this world where everything’s price seems to be escalating day by day, this article will give you an insight on how one can lay their hands on some cheap car insurance.
Car Insurance – Car Insurance Rates – Cheap Car Insurance
This can seem like an inevitable task but as you read further on you will realize that it is not that difficult to dodge some costs which might affect your premium and the insurance rate you get, also, when we say that you want cheap car insurance, in other ways we are stating that you are looking for the best hence when you say the best, you certainly need to do some research of the number of quotes available and which would fall in the best interest for you.
Apart from searching online, you can also approach an insurance agent who would guide you through the entire process of ensure and what your job to do here is present yourself in a way by which the agent gets impressed by you. Also, here are a few tips which would work in a way to ensure that you get your hands on some cheap auto insurance!
Cheap Car Insurance
- Tip 1: Clean your car frequently: Yes, we are being as literal as possible when we say that one should keep their car clean. Hygiene should be of utmost importance even generally speaking. When you ensure your car is prim and proper, you will not be under the risk of getting stains on your car and when the insurance agents come to inspect, they see that negligence is there hence this will influence the policy.
- Tip 2: Park your car in secure areas: This reduces the risk of a car being stolen which is something that the companies greatly look into.
- Tip 3: Have a clean driving record: This is perhaps the most important tip one can get. Having a free history of parking tickets and no accidents is something which the insurance companies can get impressed by and hence grant you cheap car insurance on a lower rate or premium.
Car Insurance | Best Offers – Car Insurance Quotes
Car Insurance Quotes – Regardless of your driving experiences and good skills, accidents can happen. If you are a vehicle owner, you may consider applying for insurance. If you do not want your budget to be shaken in case of a car accident. Car insurance means making annual payments to an insurance company. That company paying off your costs (all or most) if your vehicle gets damage.. There are several factors companies consider while deciding the annual fee. You will be charged to get auto insurance including your age, your gender, your driving experience, your accident history, etc.
How Does Car Insurance Work?
To get an insurance, you generally make your payments for in every six or 12 months.
In most states, having basic insurance is mandatory and you should cover bodily injury liability and property damage liability. But, if you believe more protection or complete coverage would be better, you may get additional insurance by paying a higher amount.
The additional fee you will be charged leads you to receive further coverages including property (damage, theft), liability (legal responsibility), medical costs (injuries, rehabilitation, lost wages, funeral expenses), etc.
Types Of Coverages
You have to find the right type of coverage you need to take advantages of your insurance.
Uninsured/Underinsured Motorist Coverage pays for your repair costs, medical expenses or funeral expenses if your car is damaged by a driver without auto insurance. Collision coverage covers your car repairment expenses or provides you a check for the total value of your car if the repairment costs are more than your cars value, in case of a car collision.
Bodily Injury Liability Coverage covers not only your car but also the driver and the passengers by paying off their medical, rehabilitation and funeral expenses and also legal fees. Property Damage Liability Coverage covers both the damage caused by you to other vehicles and the property damage.
But, in this type of coverage, you need collision coverage to pay off your own car’s repairment expenses. Lastly, Comprehensive Insurance covers every damage except car collision, including theft, vandalism, fire, natural disasters, etc.
Do I Need Car Insurance?
Car insurance is an extra expense that many of us would like to avoid but is definitely not the type of expense that you should overlook because you can get in real trouble.
So, if you own a car that you drive on a regular basis you should waste no more time and take interest into finding those auto insurance rates that will keep you safe while not putting too much strain on your budget. However, drivers that own cars are not the only category of people that need car insurance.
You should consider getting car insurance even if you don’t own a car but you frequently drive the cars of other people. Being a licensed driver that actively uses its right to drive a vehicle it’s a source of responsibilities that you shouldn’t take lightly because at any time you can be found liable when involved in a car accident. In addition, even if at the time of the accident you were just a passenger you might still need car insurance.
Why You Need Car Insurance
That’s because numerous health insurance companies tend to not include in their policies the injuries suffered as a result of a car accident. If you want to be covered in such situation but not deal with extremely high auto insurance rates you should consider the possibility of being added on the policy of a family member or friend.
You also need car insurance when you lease a car. It’s true that you don’t actually own the vehicle but because you are the one driving it on a daily basis you automatically become responsible for insuring it. In this case you actually need to get full coverage because the car leasing company is interested in making sure that you are able to cover the car’s repairs if an accident occurs. In this situation gap insurance is also wise to get.
Deciding Which Car Insurance Companies Are Reliable
When it’s time to shop for car insurance, before even thinking about those auto insurance quotes that make it so much easier to find the best deal that the market has to offer you should find out which are the reliable car insurance companies that are worth considering.
That’s easy to do as long as you don’t mind spending some time researching car insurance companies and comparing them. The easiest way to start your search for a short list of reliable car insurance companies is to go online. On their websites you will discover details about their offers as well as the possibility to get as many auto insurance quotes as you want in a matter of minutes.
The same online world can also help you find out how reliable a car insurance company is bound to be thanks to all those websites that dedicate their existence to reviewing these companies and allowing actual individuals who have taken advantage of their offers to speak their mind.
One of the most important websites in this category is the website of the department of insurance that exists in your state. That’s because on this website you will find those useful consumer complaint ratios.
Also important is to ask for advice from your friends and family members because their past experiences with certain car insurance companies are definitely reliable and have the potential to prevent you from making a costly mistake. In the same time once you become the owner of that short list of reliable car insurance companies you should watch their activity for a while in order to see what kind of discounts they tend to make available. All you need to keep in mind is that it’s safe to compare offers only when they include the same type of coverage.
Otherwise you need to decide what type of coverage you need more.
Main Factors That Affect Car Insurance Rates
Shopping for an affordable car insurance policy is something that you need to do on a yearly basis because as years pass and your situation as a driver changes you are likely to become eligible for better car insurance rates.
All you need to do in order to be ready to take advantage of those cheaper rates is to become aware of all the main factors that influence the costs of car insurance.
One main factor is your driving record. If the car insurance company targeted notices that you’ve been involved in quite a few car accidents and/or traffic violations, you will be labeled as high risk driver. That means you are more likely to file a claim than any other type of driver, so they will try to protect themselves by forcing you to deal with higher car insurance rates than other drivers.
In order to avoid such a situation you should become the careful type of driver and try to clean up your driving record as much as possible by attending a traffic school class and getting rid of all the traffic tickets that can be removed.
Cheap Car Insurance
Another important factor that you need to take into consideration, especially if you are interested in cheap car insurance, is the deductible. The deal offered by the insurance company will become more and more affordable as you become more inclined to opt for a higher deductible.
However, this is something that you shouldn’t do without thinking. If you are the kind of driver with high chances to get involved in a costly accident every now and then that higher deductible will translate into expenses that you will have to cover on your own. In such cases it’s better to put your faith in more harmless methods of lowering car insurance costs.
For instance, you should get a type of car that’s considered safe by insurance companies.
The Key To Cheap Car Insurance
In the current economy spending less on mandatory expenses such as car insurance is a must, so before deciding to go with one car insurance company or the other you should learn more about the steps that you can take in order to keep the cost of the policy low.
One of the most important steps is related to those car insurance quotes that nowadays are easy to get online from any car insurance company you can think of. They are so important because they give you the chance to compare offers without leaving your home and wasting a lot of time talking to an agent who’s trying to sell you something you don’t need.
However, you should know that these car insurance quotes will work to your advantage only if you order them in the right format. You need to first of all understand that you won’t find the best policy possible for the money if you don’t make sure that each quote you order involves the same level of coverage.
You can’t just choose the cheapest quote that you stumble upon regardless of the coverage it includes because you can end up completely exposed in the case of certain types of accidents.
Car Insurance Costs
To take advantage of these quotes to the maximum you should also become aware of the main factors that influence car insurance costs because this way you will be able to manipulate those factors in order to see what effect they have on your car insurance premium. For instance, you should consider playing with the deductible.
Just as important is to consider the most reliable car insurance companies in your area and use the information they make available on their websites in order to understand for what type of discount you are likely to be eligible. Now you see why these quotes are the key to cheap insurance.
Saving Money On Car Insurance
Buying a car is the biggest worry a driver may have is the budget that he needs to set aside for the car. But not only that but now he has to save a monthly amount so he can pay for the car insurance he or she buys.
Car insurance is going to be hard to control and can take a good cut from your car’s budget. Cheap car insurance is very hard to come by and it can take a good amount of time to find a good company with a package of policies that suit your budget and personal preference. Here are a few tips that can help you find cheap car insurance.
A great tip is that you should think more than once about after-market gizmos. In the case of a car accident where your car is completely totaled beyond repair, or is stolen, then the car insurance company will determine a actual cash value, and they will see your car as a complete package. This means any mods you have on your car will be completely irrelevant to them and a car that can cost around three thousand dollars will now cost almost around one to two thousand dollars. This not only causes you to lose money but makes you wonder if cheap car insurances are even possible to come across. But as long as you avoid such policies you will be safe.
Sometimes cheap car insurance is straight up just hard to find in the states you live no matter how much you look so it is best to just buy the insurance you need and drive carefully (by following all traffic laws) and safely so that you are never at fault and your policies remain untouched, because it is better to be safe and secure than look for cheap alternatives.
Tips On Finding Car Insurance
When buying a new car, all drivers may they be young or old have many things that they need to take care of. These things can take up a good amount of cash out of your car’s budget and most of the time they aren’t even directly linked to your car.
A few examples are car taxes, insurance, maintenance and fuel costs. The biggest chunk of money that is spent is usually on car insurance. Cheap car insurance is hard to come across. Buying insurance can be a great hassle and can make buying a car a really hard choice as there is a lot to consider when buying a car in relation to its insurance.
Cutting down costs is a hard thing to do so finding cheap car insurance is always going to help your driving budget and in the end you’ll be happier. Here are a few suggestions that will help you save on car insurance.
Cheap Car Insurance
A great advice is that before you even buy your next new car; you should shop around, research and looking into insurances. Cheap car insurance isn’t easy to come across.
Many rumors and myths help you lose focus and may even alter the choice you may make for the car itself that you want to buy. Such myths are such that SUV’s may be more expensive than lighter cars. That isn’t true insurance companies increase your liabilities according to your car as to how much damage it may inflict to another car or how much damage it may sustain if ever the car proceeds to enter into an unfortunate car accident. If you search around many websites you can find out which cars are better in accordance to insurance companies, and some insurance companies themselves put up lists of cars and their rates depending on the policies you want to buy.
The best tip is to just give it time before you even buy a car so you can come across cheap car insurance.
Calculating Of Car Insurance Rates
If you get in touch with any insurance company that deals in car insurance, you would get your car insurance rates before you start your car insurance policy is assigned to you.
These car insurance rates are quoted by taking some factors under consideration. Let’s take a look at these factors which are used to calculate your car insurance rates.
According to some studies and surveys it has been concluded that young people under the ages of 25 are more likely to get indulge in road accident. Similarly these studies have shown that older and mature people do not show that much of carelessness in their driving. That is why their rate of accidents is much lesser than that of young drivers. Hence the driver’s age is one of the main factor that affects your car insurance rates. If you have safe driving certificates and you have passed safe driving tests you may get low car insurance rates regardless of your age group.
- Driving Record: Your driving record plays a vital role for calculating car insurance rates for you. If you have a good driving record you may get low rates. For those who have habit of collecting traffic tickets when they drive, it is hard to get economical car insurance rates.
- Your Car: The type and model of car that you own, plays an important part in calculating your car insurance rates. If you own a sports car that is meant to run in the fast lanes it comes with high risks of accidents as well. For this reason you would be charged higher car insurance rates for it.
- Insurance Provider: Different insurance providing firms have different insurance rates policies and terms. Your car insurance rates are dependent on the car insurance company you choose to work with.
Car Insurance For Teenagers – Step By Step Guide To Save Money
Besides paying high rates for petrol and fuel, one also has to pay high car insurance rates. If you have a teenage driver you and you are looking for a car insurance policy for that young driver, you might have to face a few problems regarding high car insurance rates.
Given in this articles are few tips that might help you finding the best economical car insurance rates for your young car driver.
Higher Deductibles: if you manage to pay high deductibles before you start off with you insurance policy. That might help you in getting good economical car insurance rates. Just raising deductibles up to 30 to 40 percent can help you getting low car insurance rates.
Vehicle’s Type and Condition: Another thing that might help you getting good car insurance rates is getting your young driver an older car to drive. Lesser the risk that is attached with the car lesser will be the car insurance rates. If your teenager driver drives a sports car there always remain an accidental risk attached with it, similarly an old SUV or Sedan is more likely have safety features and there are lower the chances of its accident.
Step By Step Guide To Save Money
Combined Insurance Policy: combined insurance policy can get you best economical car insurance rates. You can get the new members of your family included in your existing car insurance policy. For this reason you can get quotations from your agent you are dealing with or you can gather information through online research.
For young drivers it is advised to install anti-theft device in their vehicles. This would not only reduce the risk for you to lose your car but through this you will also be able to get low car insurance rates.
By keeping these few and many other small factors in mind you can get the best and economical rates for you car insurance policy.
Strategic Approach To Get Low Car Insurance Rates For Young Drivers
It is thought that young drivers have to pay more car insurance rates for their car insurance policy. In fact young drivers can get the lowest car insurance rates if they work on their case according to the strategies defined in this article.
Lack of experience is thought to be the main reason for any young driver to get higher car insurance rates. As young drivers have not that much of driving experience they are more likely to get indulged in some sort of accident or unfortunate scenario. To avoid this factor you can get yourself a safe driving certificate. After getting a safe drive certificate through the department of traffic you can strike an impression on your insurance company that there is not that much of risk involved in your driving.
Driver’s education level is also an important factor to show your insurance company that you have known how about the rules of traffic rules and you can keep yourself and your car out of danger.
Car Insurance For Young Drivers
It is thought that young drivers can get detracted easily. They are thought to be distracted by the passenger of the car or their cell phones which can end up in serious consequences. You would have to show that you are focused on your driving when you drive. While having a ride your car, do not take your eyes off the road and keep your speed steady and slow.
Either put your cell phone on message recording mode or turn it off while you are driving. These small safety measures are not only important for your safety but they can also get you lower car insurance rates.
When you are young, you never feel tired. It is human psychology to move on and not to stop but your body has necessary need to get rest. Fatigue is another major issue that can lead towards some unfortunate consequences. You should also take care about your mind and body’s rest while you go for long drives.
These points can get you a good driving record which is essential to have low car insurance rates.
Car Insurance – A Deal For The Future
There are many such deals, offers and agreements which in a person’s life, prove to be life saviors at some point. One of these deals is the deal of car insurance.
It makes you safe from any kind of inconvenience in the future and secures you from all kinds of problems in the upcoming times.
You never know that what is going to happen in the very next minute that you are going to pass. So are you and your family ready for all kinds of risks, mishaps, accidents and emergencies which can occur in the future? Do you think that you are fine without insurance and no emergency can hit you? Well you are completely wrong.
A Deal For The Future
Thinking that your life is too perfect and smooth for emergencies may not be the wisest move at all as everything is in the nature’s hands and anything can happen at any millisecond, without any notice.
You have everything, happy school going kids, contented beautiful wife and a good bank balance, life seems flawless does not it? But have you ever imagined what can happen if one single accident hit your life? It would be a complete disaster as you would need enough funds, enough to kick you off the cliff of success and throw you down at the lowest level. But this cannot happen with the cheap car insurance policy protecting your life. Read the offers of insurance in the following lines.
A high intensity financial problem would be caused because of an accident as it would make it compulsory for you to arrange money for car repairing and the treatment of the injured family members. Also the devices lost in the accidents should be recovered and suppose it was your payday in the office and you could not reach, in this way the pay is also lost. All these things are covered by the insurance policies to save you from all problems.
Factors That Affect Your Car Insurance Rates
Finding the best and reliable car insurance rates can be a frustrating task for many buyers, as this task is very time consuming and stressing.
People go through many disturbing thoughts such as how much coverage they need, what to avoid when buying car insurance, and they worry about getting insured after facing a tragic accident. Some car owners do not know the technique how to cut off premiums and they pay high interest rates because they think that cracking the code to cheap car insurance rates is just too difficult.
With some important details about getting car insurance rates; people can get their confidence back and by understanding the main factors that affect the insurance policies they can get cheap car insurance rates. Some of the factors are discussed below.
Your financial resources that include your bank accounts and your credit history have a great impact on insurance rates.
If you have a bad credit history the insurance provider will probably ask you to pay high car insurance rates. Most importantly, behaviors can abundantly affect the car insurance rates. It is a true fact that accidents are usually caused by bad behaviors. Driving record is another factor which is considered by the insurance companies.
So, you should take additional training for specialized certification to have a clean driving record which will help you get suitable discounts.
The choices that consumers make are also a big factor that affects the car insurance rates. The type of your car and where you keep your car are the factors that you control.
Sports cars and high theft rates cars require high insurance rates. If you locate yourself near to your work and decrease your car’s mileage, this will also drop your car insurance rates. Though, insurance rates vary from company to company; consumers still have the ability to control some factors that affect car insurance rates.
The Importance Of Car Insurance In Your Life
Every head of the family would surely wish to give themselves and their family and secure and safe future, such that the kids go to school regularly, eating good food and paying the bills regularly and all.
Would not all the bread winners want the aforementioned things? But the ironic fact is that only “wanting” does not do the trick, a person has to take steps to get to the level of a safe future.
What are those steps? These include being prepared for all possible circumstances which can kick you off your budget completely. This task can be completed with the help of a safe cover of a cheap car insurance policy.
There are many benefits of getting your car insured. One gets the peace of mind that whatever happens, the future of him and his family will remain smooth. It is a sorrowful fact that many people out there in the city do not know about the existence of the car insurance policies. Even though is someone knows about these policies, they most likely under estimate the advantages of it. If we compare the pros and cons of insurance, the category of pros will win by a huge great score because of the low rates and high give away amounts.
Cheap car insurance makes it sure that you do not get bankrupt if something bad happens and requires money out of nowhere. If your car is insured and you unfortunately get into an accident, the company will pay all the expenses coming in for the denting and painting of the car, it will also pay for the cost coming for the care in hospitals. With so many benefits, why should you wait even for a second? It is a known fact that a mishap can happen at any time and at any place.
Knowing About The Working Of Car Insurance
Life turns at any point, at one point it seems like everything is going just perfect and on the other point we are just twisted by the luck and problems. These problems are most usually caused by the lack of money and resources which is overcame by cheap car insurance.
Your children are going to school regularly and everything is going just fine. You and your family are secure from all negatives and your bank balance is also increasing. What can be more perfect than that?
But only one car accident is completely able to turn the tables on your head. You would have to arrange the money to send the car to the garage for repairing which may include to dent and paint it. Moreover the cash needed for the treatment of the family members who got injured in the mishap must also be acquired from somewhere otherwise much bigger problems are likely to take place.
Now because of the lack of money would just make you a poor fellow which some day used to have a perfect life, all would end. This could have ended in a completely different manner only if your car was covered with an insurance policy. How? Read the following lines to know.
The cheap car insurance companies charge a fixed amount of money from the owners of the car in order to insure their vehicle. Once this has been done and the premium is being paid regularly by the owners, it becomes the responsibility of the insurance companies to compensate all kinds of losses done because of the car accident.
Including the repairing of car, treatment of people injured and the loss of wages and employment. In extreme cases the insurance company also tends to pay for the funerals of the people that died because of the intensity of the accident.
Cheap Car Insurance – How To Find Cheap Car Insurance
Car safety is something what cannot be overlooked when we talk in today’s world because of the heavy traffic out on the roads.
However, there is quite a percentage of people who think that car insurance is something which is not important and also a waste of money because these companies charge high premiums and when these companies are needed, they don’t do as much as they think they do. The problem which lies in this mindset are that car insurance is ought to be expensive; however, this article will tell you of how to get your hands on some cheap car insurance and that too- easily!
The insurance company in many cases tends to assume or take the fact for granted that one’s car seems to be in a good and maintained condition when it comes to taking it out on those busy and full of traffic roads. It also looks over the fact that the driver is well-qualified to be driving a car. Taking into consideration these factors, the insurance policy is driven up which is the legal and most important document for both the company and the consumer.
Another way of how one can get their hands on cheap car insurance is that safety can be used in the car. The most important factor that on an average determines the type of rating for your insurance is when the consumer’s car seems to be parked outside the vicinity of one’s home which means either in the streets or even in a garage which is locked. What needs to be realized here that if it is in a safe place, the possibility of the car being stolen is highly low therefore the premium should be set to be lower hence lowering the average cost for having insurance.
4 Smart Ways to Find Cheap Car Insurance
When you own a car, it is mandatory for one to get it insured. In some states it is also a part of the law. So why is car insurance so important? No one can be sure of any unforeseen circumstances or incidents that occur inclusive of any theft or traffic accidents.
When looking out for the perfect car insurance company, something that anyone would keep in mind is to lay their hands on some cheap car insurance. This is because insurance tends to take a chunk of one’s salary, budget or savings hence looking for this which is cheap is a very viable way to go around it. Hence, in this article, you will come across 4 ways which would contribute in aiding you when it comes to looking and getting cheap car insurance.
1. Apply for Discounts: When we say apply for discounts, we really do mean that one should apply for discounts. This being the reason to getting your premium lowered. Companies give discounts to those who have no fatal history when it comes to driving and some are also given to students.
2. High or Low Deductible: When talking about the deductible, this is something which is very important in context to the insurance rate you receive. Hence, if you pay a high deductible, you will pay less when ones car insurance is to be due and the other is the opposite of the former.
3. Compare Quotes: This is something one should do before going to a company for the insurance policy. Online sites aid you in determining the quotes you can get hence compare quotes from company to company.
4. Avoid Speeding Tickets: One thing which the company’s look into is your driving history hence the more tickets you get, the higher your premium hence avoid this.
Car Insurance Rates – Useful Tips To Cut Your Premiums
If you are looking for the best car insurance rates, then you need to sensibly plan an insurance tactic.
You should get a handful of quotes from different competitive insurance companies to save some money and get the cheapest car insurance rates. So, to plan the ideal car insurance strategy, here are some useful tips to start with. Do not let your insurance policy expire. As soon as your policy expires, you fall into the uninsured type of car insurance buyers. So avoid getting jammed with a lapsed policy.
This means if your insurance is expired; you will have a hard time getting cheap car insurance. You might get charged extra 20% than any other who has a clear history of insurance coverage. This is why is it better to shop a month before your insurance expires.
It is better to pay full premiums of your car insurance at once. If you are paying for your car insurance premiums on installments then they will probably has an investment duty built into the cost.
To solve this problem you can change your payment charges on your credit card or you can ask your car insurance provider to offer a fast recompense concession. Avoid getting first accident forgiveness policy. For instance, you know there is no such thing as free lunch; the same case is with car insurance.
To avoid that first accident you might be paying high premiums for purchasing car insurance, but why pay for something that has not happened yet. So, ask for a policy without first accident forgiveness. Car insurances are surely better off without it.
Installing an alarm or vehicle tracking system might save you from the risks which include high premiums. Insurance providers would offer low priced car insurance rates if you have low risks of losing your car. You can implement on the above mentioned tips and easily get the best car insurance.
FAQs on Car Insurance
1. What is car insurance?
Car insurance is a contract between an individual and an insurance company, where the individual pays a periodic premium, and in return, the company provides financial coverage for damages or loss incurred through car accidents, theft, or other events stipulated in the policy.
2. Why is car insurance important?
Car insurance is crucial as it protects you financially from liabilities and damages arising from accidents. It can also cover the cost of lawsuits and medical expenses incurred due to accidents.
3. What are the different types of car insurance coverage?
There are several types of car insurance coverage including:
- Liability coverage
- Collision coverage
- Comprehensive coverage
- Uninsured and underinsured motorist coverage
- Medical payments coverage
- Personal injury protection
4. What factors affect the cost of car insurance?
Factors such as your age, gender, driving history, the make and model of your car, and the area you reside in can significantly affect your car insurance premiums.
5. Can I transfer my car insurance to another vehicle?
Yes, you can transfer your car insurance to another vehicle, but you will need to inform your insurance provider and update your policy details to reflect the changes.
6. What is a no-claims bonus?
A no-claims bonus is a discount on your car insurance premium that you receive for each year you don’t make a claim. It is a reward for safe driving.
7. How does deductible work in car insurance?
A deductible is the amount you agree to pay out-of-pocket before your insurance coverage kicks in. A higher deductible typically results in lower premium payments.
8. Does car insurance cover theft and vandalism?
Comprehensive car insurance generally covers theft and vandalism, protecting you from damages arising from non-collision events.
9. Can I get car insurance with a poor driving record?
Yes, but you may face higher premiums and might be limited to purchasing only the most basic coverage.
10. How do I file a car insurance claim?
To file a car insurance claim, you should notify your insurance provider as soon as possible, providing them with all necessary documents such as a police report, photographs of the damage, and witness statements.